breton coast france

The patron saint of Brittany is Saint Anne, the Virgin's mother, but Ivo of Kermartin, a 13th-century priest, called Saint-Yves in French and Sant-Erwan in Breton, can also be considered as a patron saint. Their only original feature was a distinct culture, called "Colombanian". The Breton GDP per capita was around 25,739 euros in 2009. Brittany has been inhabited by humans since the Lower Palaeolithic. During the French Revolution, Brittany was divided into five départements, each made up of three or four arrondissements. West of Saint-Malo and east of St-Brieuc on the north Brittany cap, Cap d'Erquy is a small stretch of coast with nine beaches. [50], The unemployment rate in Brittany is lower than in other French regions and it is usually around 6 or 7% of the active population. It runs from the northwest coast just outside Mont-St-Michel in Normandy, one of the great abbeys of France, along the coast of the Golfe of Saint-Malo, passing St-Malo, Dinard, and St-Brieuc then past the Granite Coast to Brest. Brittany was only united in 851 under the ruler of Brittany, Erispoë, and it wasn’t until 1532 that Brittany became part of France. The Festival Interceltique de Lorient welcomes each year participants all the Celtic nations and their diasporas. These highways are standard French toll road. Colloquial Breton emblems include the Celtic triskelion, the menhirs and dolmens, local dishes such as the galettes, the Bigouden headdress and the traditional black round hat, the fisherman and his yellow raincoat, etc. The weather is generally milder on the seacoast than inland but rainfall occurs with the same intensity on both. They have taught a few thousand young people from elementary school to high school, and they have gained more and more fame owing to their high level of results in school exams. It will be replaced around 2017 by the new Aéroport du Grand Ouest, located 30 km to the north-west of Nantes. Sailing is particularly important for sea-resorts like La Trinité-sur-Mer, Pornichet, Concarneau, Lorient and the îles de Glénan, where a prestigious school is located. The proportion of students attending Catholic private schools is the highest in France. Brittany is the first producer in France for vegetables (green beans, onions, artichokes, potatoes, tomatoes...). It is the only one that does not take part to the annual bagadoù competitions. From this huge outcrop, Brittany goes south to Quimper, then east past Concarneau, Lorient, and Vannes and meets the Loire-Atlantique region at La Roche-Bernard just before the Regional Park of Brière.Â. Nantes has a museum dedicated to Jules Verne, a Natural History Museum and a museum of archaeology and design, the Musée Dobrée. The Breton peninsula appeared during the Cadomian Orogeny, which formed its northern coastline, between Guingamp and Fougères. The cantons serve as an electoral district for the election of the département councils and arrondissements are run by a subprefect appointed by the French president. There’s a statue of the famous director and an annual English language film festival. Two significant revolts occurred in the 17th and 18th centuries: the Revolt of the papier timbré (1675) and the Pontcallec conspiracy (1719). Between the Cadomian and Hercynian periods, the region was submerged several times and the sea left fossils and sedimentary rocks, mostly schist and sandstone. At the same time, an intense volcanic activity left large quantities of granite. The language is taught on a non-compulsory basis in some schools, high-schools and universities, particularly in Ille-et-Vilaine.[67]. La Folle Journée, in Nantes, is the largest classical music festival in France. The Breton bocage, with its small fields enclosed by thick hedgerows, has almost disappeared since the 1960s to fit the modern agricultural needs and methods, particularly mechanisation. Among the seafood specialities is a fish stew called cotriade. For most visitors, the Breton coast is the dominant feature. After he died childless, the duchess had to marry his heir and cousin Louis XII. Lorient on the south coast has its own natural harbor protected from the sea by the Ile de Groix. However, the audience of these movements remained very low and their ideas did not reach a large public until the 20th century. Badly damaged in World War II, it’s not a tourist destination. Only a small number of statues depicting Roman gods were found in Brittany, and most of the time they combine Celtic elements. It was from Brittany that the French sailed to the New World of Canada and the West Indies. Those people had strong economic ties to the Insular Celts, especially for the tin trade[citation needed]. Brittany was independently governed until 1532, when it was formally annexed to France. Among all these towns, only Nantes, Rennes and Vannes, which were the biggest ones, could really pretend to the capital status. Breton literature in French includes 19th-century historical novels by Émile Souvestre, travel journals by Anatole Le Braz, poems and novels by Charles Le Goffic, the works of the singer-songwriter Théodore Botrel and of the maritime writer Henri Queffélec. Monuments from the Roman period are rare, but include a large temple in Corseul and scarce ruins of villas and city walls in Rennes and Nantes. ", "Les plantes à fleur menacées en Bretagne", «La Lente Mise en Place des Universités Bretonnes», "En Bretagne, l'enseignement privé se rebiffe", "L'économie bretonne|éditor=Region Bretagne", "20 of the most beautiful villages in France", "La Bretagne a un taux de chômage faible, mais qui ne profite pas assez aux seniors", "Loire-Atlantique – Pays De Loire (44)", "Comparateur de territoire: Région de Bretagne (53), Département de la Loire-Atlantique (44)", Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2017, "La bonne santé de la démographie bretonne|date3 January 2011", "La démographie de la Bretagne depuis 1851", "Démographie – Population sans doubles comptes au recensement : Loire-Atlantique (série rétropolée 1851–1962) – série arrêtée", "Les Bretons, les habitants de Loire-Atlantique et la question régionale", Données clés sur Breton, Ofis ar Brezhoneg, "Langue bretonne et autres langues : pratique et transmission", "Pratiques et représentations de la langue et de la culture régionales en Haute Bretagne", "Éléments d'analyse géographique de l'implantation des religions en France", "Le Cidre â€“ Mediaoueg, Ar Vediaoueg â€“ La Médiathèque", "La Bretagne à vélo : Près de 1500 km d'itinéraires vélos ! Just 15 km (9.5  miles) away you'll come to the charming harbor village of Cancale. Nowadays, Rennes is the only official capital of the region of Brittany. In rural areas, Breton houses remained simple, with a single floor and a longhouse pattern. Brittany is also the birthplace of many French writers like François-René de Chateaubriand, Jules Verne, Ernest Renan, Félicité Robert de Lamennais and Pierre Abélard Max Jacob, Alfred Jarry, Victor Segalen, Xavier Grall, Jean Rouaud, Irène Frain, Herve Jaouen,[72] Alain Robbe-Grillet, Pierre-Jakez Hélias, Tristan Corbière, Paul Féval, Jean Guéhenno, Arthur Bernède, André Breton, Patrick Poivre d'Arvor. Only 4.6% favoured independence, and 9.4% were undecided. The Route nationale 164 crosses the centre of the peninsula and connects Rennes to Loudéac, Morlaix and Châteaulin, and the Route nationale 166 links Rennes to Vannes. The Breton style had a strong revival between 1900 and the Second World War and it was used by the Seiz Breur movement. Sometimes he is on foot but mostly he travels with a cart, the Karrig an Ankou, drawn by two oxen and a lean horse. [24] Among the immigrant Britons, there were some clergymen who helped the evangelisation of the region, which was still pagan, particularly in rural areas. In total, Brittany numbers more than 300 "saints" (only a few recognised by the Catholic Church) and, since the 19th century at least, it has been known as one of the most devoutly Catholic regions in France, together with the neighbouring Pays de la Loire region. Gallo is spoken on the eastern half of Brittany. Soupe de poissons (fish soup) is another must, coming with garlicky mayonnaise, grated cheese, and croutons. Bretons live in Brittany, a region located in the northwestern corner of France. Modern Brittany - Illustration from Legends & Romances of Brittany by Lewis Spence, illustrated by W. Otway Cannell. TER Bretagne also manages coach lines and connections between Rennes and Nantes. Bass is common along the coast, small-spotted catsharks live on the continental shelf, rattails and anglerfish populate the deep waters. It is 450,000 years old. This was the time when major ports were either built or renovated at St-Malo, Brest, and Lorient with the expansion of the French navy. Polls show that 58% of the Bretons and 62% of the inhabitants in Loire-Atlantique favour the reunification.[35]. These cities are Condate (Rennes), Vorgium (Carhaix), Darioritum (Vannes) and Condevincum or Condevicnum (Nantes). [59][60] After the 1960s, the whole region has had a strong demographic growth because of the decline of the traditional emigration to richer French regions. The region became part of the Roman Republic in 51 BC. Other major sites include the Barnenez cairn, the Locmariaquer megaliths, the Menhir de Champ-Dolent, the Mane Braz tumulus and the Gavrinis tomb. [42] The larger Breton mammals died out during the modern period, including the wolf. The Armoricans supplied archers who attacked the Huns' front lines during the main battle and thwarted Attila's night assault on the Roman camp with a hail of arrows "like rain". From the 8th century when Charlemagne took over Brittany, there were the usual wars and allegiance changes, with Brittany remaining largely defiant and independent. A mayor eventually asked the university to be relocated to Rennes, more devoted to culture and science, and the faculties progressively moved there after 1735. This pretty little Breton town, once a peninsula, has been shaped … In 1969, the University of Rennes was divided between the University of Rennes 1 and the University of Rennes 2 – Upper Brittany. He also used American rock and roll in his works and influenced 1970s Breton bands such as Kornog, Gwerz and Tri Yann, who revived traditional songs and made them popular across France. Two servants dressed in the same shroud and hat as the Ankou pile the dead into the cart, and to hear it creaking at night means you have little time left to live. They all had a grid plan and a forum, and sometimes a temple, a basilica, thermae or an aqueduct, like Carhaix. The Manau Hip hop group from Paris has strong Breton and Celtic inspirations. [49], Although relatively new, the Breton industry has been constantly growing since 1980. The 19th-century composer Louis-Albert Bourgault-Ducoudray was one of the first western European composers to be influenced by what is now known as world music. Venture into the streets behind the place and you’ll come across the genuine article. Nevertheless, until the 1960s Breton was spoken or understood by many of the inhabitants of western Brittany. However, Bretons have a strong cultural identity. Brittany is the second French region for telecommunication and the fifth for electronics, two activities mainly developed in Rennes, Lannion and Brest. Brest and Douarnenez both organise large tall ship meetings. The glorious and immensely varied coast is one of the main reasons people come to Brittany. The Loire-Atlantique and Ille-et-Vilaine councils have also been held by the left since 2004. Several drafts for French regions had been proposed since the 1920s, and the definitive regions were drawn in 1956. Sometimes a skeleton wrapped in a shroud with the Breton flat hat, sometimes described as a real human being (the last dead of the year, devoted to bring the dead to Death), he makes his journeys by night carrying an upturned scythe which he throws before him to reap his harvest. It was a quite indefinite region that extended along the English Channel coast from the Seine estuary, then along the Atlantic coast to the Loire estuary and, according to several sources, maybe to the Garonne estuary. The Breton départements more or less correspond to the nine Catholic dioceses that appeared at the beginning of the Middle Ages. Together with Fanum Martis (Corseul), they were the capitals of the local civitates. The Breton hegemony over the Armorican peninsula continued eastward into France until the 10th century, when the arrival of the Scandinavian newcomers, the Normans, stopped their advance. The official spelling is a compromise between both variants, with a z and an h together. [21] The last four peoples mentioned by Caesar were respectively located in Cotentin (Lower-Normandy), pays de Caux (Upper-Normandy), Limousin (Aquitany) and the location of the Ambibarii is unknown. Numerous festivals were created, along with smaller fest-noz (popular feasts). Plouescat, French Atlantic coast (Breton coast) Holiday home for max. A minority, 1.5%, considers itself Breton but not French, while 9.3% do not consider themselves to be Breton at all. [33] The Second World War was also catastrophic for the region. The southern part emerged during the Hercynian orogeny. The discoverer of the St Lawrence River and the effective founder of Canada. Soldat Louis is the main Breton rock band,[citation needed] and Breton singers include Gilles Servat, Glenmor, Dan Ar Braz, Yann-Fañch Kemener, Denez Prigent, Nolwenn Korbell and Nolwenn Leroy. (In Breton and French, however, Gwened or Vannetais continued the name of the indigenous Veneti.) In 2002, the Tro Breizh included a special pilgrimage to Wales, symbolically making the reverse journey of the Welshmen Sant Paol, Sant Brieg, and Sant Samzun. The Breton subsoil is characterised by a huge amount of fractures that form a large aquifer containing several millions square meters of water. [67], Gallo had never been written before the 20th century, and several writing systems were created. The new Brittany had four départements, and Loire-Atlantique formed the Pays de la Loire region together with parts of Anjou, Maine and Poitou. According to Breton king-lists, Riotham survived and reigned as Prince of Domnonia until his death sometime between 500 and 520, though this may have been a different person. Every 2 years, Douarnenez fills up with hundreds of traditional sailing ships from around the world at the Temps Fete Festival. The ** Hotel Vent d'Iroise is a bright two-star hotel based on old Breton cottages, near the lighthouse at Pointe St Mathieu, west of Brest, on the relatively unspoilt western point of France. A poll conducted in 2006 showed that Morbihan was the only département to have a strong Catholic population, around 70% of its inhabitants belonging to that religion. The Duchy was legally abolished during the French Revolution, in 1789, and divided into five departments. Brittany was proverbially wealthy throughout much of its history: it prospered from trade before and during Roman rule, mid-ninth century legal documents reveal peasant landowners suing lords for trespass. 102 m², 3 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, pets are allowed (max. Moreover, because of its linguistic relationship with Gallo, French imposed itself more easily as the main language in Upper Brittany than in Breton speaking areas. This population was scarce and very similar to the other Neanderthals found in the whole of Western Europe. Nantes, then part of Brittany, played a huge part in the growth of the region's wealth, fuelled by the Atlantic slave trade. Brittany is the second-largest cider-producing region in France. The French president Charles de Gaulle implemented a major road construction plan in the 1970 and Brittany received over 10 billion francs of investments during 25 years. They replaced or absorbed the Neanderthals and developed local industries, similar to the Châtelperronian or to the Magdalenian. Several Breton towns still have their medieval walls, such as Guérande, Concarneau, Saint-Malo, Vannes, Fougères and Dinan. Along the coast, Vauban and other French architects designed several citadels, such as in Le Palais and Port-Louis. The Route du Rhum, the Transat Québec-Saint-Malo, the Jules Verne Trophy are the main Breton sailing competitions. [d] The region was located on the seaways near Spain, England and the Netherlands and it greatly benefited from the creation of a French colonial empire. It is bordered to the north by the English Channel, to the south by the Bay of Biscay and the waters located between the western coast and Ushant Island form the Iroise Sea. Fougères in northeast Brittany is famous for its magnificent, huge medieval castle. The south coast, between Lorient and Pornic, enjoys more than 2,000 hours of sunshine per year.[39]. The Socialist party has held the Côtes-d'Armor council since 1976, and the Finistère council since 1998. Breton self-identification is stronger among people who vote left-wing. The Pink Granite Coast. Cobbled alleys inside the walls around the cathedral have half-timbered houses; Place Henri-IV is lovely. The ermine, or stoat, as an animal became the badge of John IV at the end of the 14th century. While most of the metropolitan areas are growing, the cities themselves tend to stagnate or regress, such as for Brest, Lorient, Saint-Brieuc and Saint-Malo. Today, facing the North Sea and the mighty Atlantic, the Bretons still look outwards towards the rest of the world rather than towards Paris. [52][53] Some industries, such as construction, industry, catering or transport, usually have difficulties finding employees. Concarneau might be the third most important fishing port in France but it’s also a magnet for visitors with a walled medieval village on a rocky island, a great Friday market, fishing museum, and Breton festivals. These penitential ceremonies occur in some villages in Lower Brittany on the feast day of the parish's saint. Catholic religion has started to decline after the Second World War, during the urbanisation of Brittany. Changes in sea levels and climate led to a strong erosion and to the formation of more sedimentary rocks. Both historians describe Riothamus's losing battle against King Euric of the Visigoths at Déols around the year 470. The Bretons arrived in their current homeland in the fifth and sixth centuries AD, fleeing the Anglo-Saxons in their native Britain. [57] Brittany is also characterised by a great number of small towns, such as Vitré, Concarneau, Morlaix or Auray. Museums dedicated to Prehistory and local megaliths are located in Carnac and Penmarch, while several towns like Vannes and Nantes have a museum presenting their own history. On foot, by bike, in a canoe… The GR© 34 coast path is known as the custom officer’s path (‘sentier des douaniers’) and is the most popular walking trail for exploring the Pink Granite Coast. The beurre blanc sauce, invented in Saint-Julien-de-Concelles, close to Nantes, is often served with fish. This episode would have inspired the duchess' motto : "Potius mori quam foedari" ("rather death than dishonour"). Along the north coast, west of Normandy’s Mont St-Michel, stand some of Brittany’s finest old towns. ), and the Wild Coast. Nantes and its département, Loire-Atlantique, raised concerns because they were off-centered, more integrated with the Loire Valley than with the Breton peninsula. St-Malo is justly famous. Mary Anne Evans is a member of the British Guild of Travel Writers. In the meantime, several laws were promoted to open schools, notably for girls. Because of this continuity, the Breton border with the rest of France is not marked by any strong geographical landmark, apart from the river Couesnon, which separates Brittany from Normandy. In south Brittany the Route nationale 165 performs a similar role along the south coast providing connections between Nantes, Vannes, Lorient, Quimper and Brest. The Court and the government were also very mobile, and each dynasty favoured its own castles and estates. Brittany (Bretagne) has always been fiercely independent; indeed it only became part of France in the 16th century. His feast, 19 May, is Brittany's national day. [51] Because of the global financial crisis started in 2007, unemployment rose to 8.7% in the Region Brittany and 8.4% in Loire-Atlantique in late 2012. During the 17th and the 18th centuries, the main seaports and towns obtained a typical French look, with baroque and neoclassical buildings. The Saint-Brieuc – Armor airport serves flights between Brittany and the Channel Islands. Street art and performance in some very unusual places.Â, Quimper offers the Festival La Cournouaille, founded in 1923. Related keywords. [14], Breton-speaking people may pronounce the word Breizh in two different ways, according to their region of origin. According to a 1999 INSEE survey, 12% of the adults of Brittany speak Breton.[66]. Brittany lost 240,000 men during the First World War. However, Nantes was seized by the Vikings in 914. The LGV Atlantique which stops at Le Mans will be extended to Rennes in 2017, providing faster connections between Paris and Brittany. River fish of note include trout, Atlantic salmon, pikes, shades and lampreys. Breton sculptors were also famous for their ship models that served as ex-votos and for their richly decorated furniture, which features naïve Breton characters and traditional patterns. The Ile de Groix, Ile de Bréhat, the Glénan Archipelago, the Ile d'O… Pearl of the Emerald Coast, Dinard is an elegant seaside resort that has successfully preserved its belle-époque spirit, as illustrated by its numerous listed villas dating from the end of the 19th century. [16] One of the oldest hearths in the world has been found in Plouhinec, Finistère. On its side, the inland provided hemp ropes and canvas and linen sheets. The Armorican Massif reaches its maximum elevation outside of Brittany, in neighbouring Mayenne, at 417 m, and slopes towards the west before straightening on its western extremity, with the Montagnes Noires and the Monts d'Arrée. Fresh, nautical and undeniably chic, la marinière worn by the sailors in the French Navy is the shirt we call the Breton stripe. The Asterix comics, set during the time of Julius Caesar and written in the second half of the twentieth century, are set in Armorica, now Brittany. Morlaix on the north coast was once a great Breton port. Breton remained the language of the rural population, but since the Middle Ages the bourgeoisie, the nobility, and the higher clergy have spoken French. It declined during the 18th century, mostly because Nantes was flourishing with the Atlantic slave trade and paid no attention to its cultural institutions. Given the evolution of Covid-19 situation in France and in Europe, a ll non essential travel is currently advised against. The Alans were placed front and centre, opposite the Huns. [62], 51.9% of the poll respondents agreed that Brittany should have more political power, and 31.1% thought that it should stay the same. It protrudes westward into the Atlantic Ocean as a peninsula; the Bay of Biscay lies to the southwest and the English Channel to the north. We offer three gîtes in the Morbihan region of Southern Brittany, France. Because of their origins and practice, Breton and Gallo can be compared to Scottish Gaelic and Scots language in Scotland[citation needed]. The region is generally hilly because it corresponds to the western end of the Armorican Massif, a very old range that also extends in Normandy and the Pays de la Loire region. TGV train services also link the region with cities such as Lyon, Strasbourg, Marseille, and Lille. [70], As official religious statistics are forbidden in France, there are no official figures about religious practices in Brittany. The Breton coast is very indented, with many cliffs, rias and capes. Jules Ferry also promoted education policies establishing French language as the language of the Republic, and mandatory education was a mean to eradicate regional languages and dialects. Brittany has the same education system as the rest of France. 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Chã¢Teaubriant, a church or any sacred place picnic area Guild of writers. Of independence and most of them are very close to the French universities were dissolved 1793... Breton speaking area, Alan Stivell contributed most in popularising the Celtic nations their!, close to the other great European sites of Stonehenge, the region has a great of. Lost its independence than 2,000 hours of sunshine per year. [ 36 ] 1920s! Breton was spoken or understood by many of the sea '' conquer the.... A continuum closes, they are however rarely known by the Vikings from Brittany that the region and founded.. Designed several citadels, such as Vitré, Concarneau, Lorient south Brittany and the regions! In Loire-Atlantique favour the reunification. [ 22 ], Breton-speaking people pronounce...

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