nebraska 28 switchgrass

Most plot and field-scale switchgrass research has been conducted on forage-type cultivars selected for other livestock-based characteristics in addition to yield. A stable and consistent feedstock supply must be available year-round to the ethanol or power plant. Energy produced from renewable carbon sources is held to a different standard than energy produced from fossil fuels, in that renewable fuels must have highly positive energy values and low greenhouse gas emissions. However, they noted that SOC increases varied across sites, and the variation in SOC change reiterated the importance of long-term environmental monitoring sites in major agro-ecoregions. Impact of row spacing, nitrogen rate, and time on carbon portioning of switchgrass. To view a list of certified seed growers producing a specific variety of seed, select seed type and variety: If soil tests indicate a new switchgrass field has high residual N levels, N rates can be significantly reduced during the initial production years using the above information as a guideline. Moser et al., eds. Sanderson, M.A., R. Reed, S. McLaughlin, S. Wullschleger, B. Conger, D. Parrish, D. Wolf, C. Taliaferro, A. Hopkins, W. Ocumpaugh, M. Hussey, J. Excellent results are obtained by planting after a soybean (Glycine max) crop using a properly calibrated no-till drill with depth bands that plant seeds 0.25 inch to 0.5 inch deep followed by press wheels (Figure 2). J. 155 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<98C7A19B3C2F9D48BC268DE5F587AB11><03C712066BB7734F9AEA3B58B8FD3C08>]/Index[129 46]/Info 128 0 R/Length 116/Prev 180143/Root 130 0 R/Size 175/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Biomass production of ‘Alamo’ switchgrass in response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and row spacing. 2001. Anderson, B., and C. Shapiro. Parrish, D.J., and J.H. 2008. Long-term plot trials and farm-scale studies in the Great Plains and plot trials in the Great Plains, Midwest, South, and Southeast indicate switchgrass is productive, protective of the environment, and profitable for the farmer. ATTRA Publication No. Switchgrass can be harvested and baled with commercially available haying equipment. 2005. Cluster analysis showed that Nebraska 28 and Forestberg had the highest allelopathic potential among the switchgrass cultivars. It is most commonly found in prairie lowlands, but will grow under wide range of climatic conditions. A 50-million-gallon per year plant will require 625,000 U.S. tons of feedstock per year assuming 80 gallons of ethanol can be produced from one ton of feedstock. Switchgrass is being evaluated as a potential bioenergy crop for conversion into ethanol. It provides good warm-season pasture and high quality hay for livestock. Most of the general public first heard about switchgrass on January 31, 2006, when President George W. Bush in his State of the Union Address said, “We must also change how we power our automobiles. Univ. We will increase our research in better batteries for hybrid and electric cars, and in pollution-free cars that run on hydrogen. Switchgrass is very tolerant of poor soils, flooding and drought. Casler, and G. Sarath. Schmer, M.R., K.P. Contrary to popular belief, switchgrass is not a new or novel crop but has more than 70 years of research and farming experience. Liebig, M.A., M.R. hÞbbd```b``z "—ƒÙÇ@${ˆd"Y More than 70 years of experience with switchgrass as a hay and forage crop suggest switchgrass will be productive and sustainable on rain-fed marginal land east of the 100th meridian. Concerns arise for potential disease and insect pests, and the escape of switchgrass as an invasive species with the production of millions of switchgrass acres, especially since little research has been conducted on these topics. The effect of switchgrass residue on associated weed growth was also studied. However, producers with experience growing switchgrass had five-year average costs of $43/ton, and one producer grew switchgrass for $38/ton. Áì(›Å,Òfw‚Ù¾`”A$X%GX¤ D²­ ³Á²Ö`[6ƒHÎ|é»,¢ In a five-year study in Nebraska, the potential ethanol yield of switchgrass averaged 372 gallons acre-1 and was equal to or greater than that for no-till corn (grain + stover) on a dry-land site with marginal soils (Varvel et al., 2008). The energy efficiency and sustainability of ethanol produced from grains and cellulosics has been evaluated using net energy value (NEV), net energy yield (NEY), and the ratio of the biofuel output to petroleum input [petroleum energy ratio (PER)] (Schmer et al., 2008). Crop Sci. 2002. After the establishment year, a successfully established switchgrass stand requires limited herbicide applications. J. 6 ), which seemed to be the cultivars with drought tolerance due to their high WUE [41] .

Blackwell, Cave-in-Rock and Nebraska 28 had maximum photosynthesis ( Table 4 ). Switchgrass, big bluestem, and indiangrass are native warm-season grasses that can provide abundant, high-quality . Spring applications of atrazine at 2 qt acre-1 can be used to control cool-season grasses in established switchgrass stands. Nebraska 28. Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to North America, where it occurs naturally from 55°N latitude in Canada southwards into the United States and Mexico.Switchgrass is one of the dominant species of the central North American tallgrass prairie and can be found in remnant prairies, in native grass pastures, and naturalized along roadsides. 1950. Mitchell, and R.K. Perrin. Additionally, after a killing frost, the multidirectional arrangement of the switchgrass in the windrow was easier to bale than the linearly arranged windrow left by the sickle-bar head. The seed was a new release from the Agriculture Experiment Station called, Nebr. Numerous studies have reported that switchgrass will protect soil, water, and air quality; provide fully sustainable production systems; sequester C; create wildlife habitat; increase landscape and biological diversity; return marginal farmland to production; and increase farm revenues (McLaughlin and Walsh, 1998; McLaughlin et al., 2002). In the establishment year, good weed management and rainfall will provide about half of the fully established yield potential of the site and cultivar. Crop Sci. pp. Biomass and Bioenergy 20:413-419. Row spacing for switchgrass is typically 7.5 to 10 inches. Burras, and M. Barker. 2001. To view a list of certified seed growers producing a specific variety of seed, select seed type and variety: Spraying herbicides to control broadleaf weeds typically is needed only once or twice every 10 years in an established, well-managed switchgrass stands. Hanson, J.D., and H. A. Johnson. of Nebraska-Lincoln. Agron. Switchgrass has several characteristics that make it a desirable biomass energy crop: it is a broadly adapted native to North America, it has consistently high yield relative to other species in varied environments, it requires minimal agricultural inputs, it is relatively easy to establish from seed, and a seed industry already exists (McLaughlin and Kzsos, 2005; Parrish and Fike, 2005; Sanderson et al., 2007). Sustainable biomass energy crops must be productive, protective of soil and water resources, and profitable for the producer. Although switchgrass can survive on low fertility soils, it does respond to fertilizer, especially N. The amount of N required by switchgrass is a function of the yield potential of the site, productivity of the cultivar, and other management practices being used (Vogel et al., 2002). It will get 6-7' tall and grows very well here in Michigan. Consequently, the forage-type cultivars in the Great Plains and Midwest are entirely represented by upland ecotypes which are inherently lower yielding than lowland ecotypes. Switchgrass for bioenergy is an energetically positive and environmentally sustainable production system for the Great Plains. Switchgrass is a native, perennial, warm-season, sod-forming tall grass. Seed germination of several perennial grasses was studied with major emphasis on Nebraska 28 switchgrass and Holt indiangrass. 71:155-162. Wolf. Vogel, and G. Sarath. Photo: Rob Mitchell. Chromosome numbers of cultivars of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans L.) and the tall bluestem complex of big bluestem (Andropogon gerardi Vitman.) Switchgrass - Nebraska 28 (per pound) $11.00 / bag Switchgrass - Nebraska 28 (per pound) How much seed would you like to purchase? Photo: Rob Mitchell. Green Jr., M. Rasnake, and J. Reynolds. endstream endobj 130 0 obj <. High-value renewable energy from prairie grasses. Prefers moderately deep to deep, somewhat dry to poorly drained, sandy to clay loam soils are best. Plant Sci. There is considerable variation in plant type. I have been using Nebraska 28 the last few years and you would be hard pressed to tell the difference between my CIR and Nebraska 28. Nebraska 28 It was collected from a native switchgrass stand in Holt County, in northeast Nebraska. switch grass. Additionally, after a killing frost, the multidirectional arrangement of the switchgrass in the windrow was easier to bale than the linearly arranged windrow left by a sickle-bar head. Vogel, and R.B. President George W. Bush, State of the Union Address 2006. Brummer, K.J. For the producer, perennial herbaceous energy crops must be profitable, they must fit into existing farming operations, they must be easy to store and deliver to the plant, and extension efforts must be provided to inform producers on the agronomics and best management practices for growing perennial herbaceous energy crops. Harvesting switchgrass in summer at or after flowering when drought conditions exist is not recommended. Jones, and R.L. and sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii Hack.) An early-maturing strain representative of Nebraska Sandhill types. Indiangrass cultivars ‘Nebraska 54’, ‘Oto’, ‘Osage’, and ‘Holt’ were all tetraploids (2n = 40). 2006. Our goal is to make this new kind of ethanol practical and competitive within six years.” Although the USDA ARS location in Lincoln, Nebraska, has been conducting switchgrass research continuously since 1936, and regionally specific biomass energy research has occurred since about 1987 at universities such as Auburn, Virginia Tech, and Texas A&M, interest in switchgrass increased exponentially following this Presidential address. After harvest, poor switchgrass storage conditions can result in storage losses of 25% in a single year. Root depth of established switchgrass may reach 10 feet, but most of the root mass is in the top 12 inches of the soil profile. Vogel, R.B. McLaughlin, S.B., and L.A. Kszos. In the Great Plains and Midwest, maximum first-cut yields are attained by harvesting switchgrass when panicles are fully emerged to the post-anthesis stage (~1 August). Carbon-negative biofuels from low-input high-diversity grassland biomass. Science 314:1598-1600. Turner, A.D. Jones, M. O’Hare, and D.M. Switchgrass publications addressing nitrogen fertilizer application for different regions of the United States listed by state, the major parameters evaluated in the study, and references for each study. Switchgrass is a native warm-season grass that has been used for hay, forage, and conservation purposes for decades and switchgrass research in Nebraska has been ongoing since 1936. 1996. 2008. Davison, J. Generally, lowland plants have a later heading date and are taller with larger and thicker stems. The 10 farms and five production years had a PER of 13.1 and produced 93% more ethanol per acre than human-made prairies and 471% more ethanol per acre than low-input switchgrass in Minnesota (Schmer et al., 2008). Nevertheless, Nebraska 28 and Pathfinder had higher WUE than others especially in the midday ( Table 4 and Fig. Lot of biomass right now.” Nebraska Certified seed Growers habitat creation, difficult-to-farm, or on currently!, green and nearly six feet tall 2009 orion, may 9, 2009 Torr the Great Plains Midwest..., Liebig et al were measured on four dates during the growing season when the is! Tolerant of poor soils, flooding and drought of biomass for biofuel production and North Dakota South... Early in the Midwest USA: harvest and nitrogen management weeds as in. Hill, and J. Reynolds bales stored outside can reduce dry matter prevent. Grass that is a native warm-season grasses that can provide abundant, high-quality soil test levels ( Anderson Shapiro. Harvesting switchgrass in its third year of production at Michigan State University and the University of Nebraska in 1949 production... Feet tall is a leading biomass crop in the United States must occur after a killing frost avoid. 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Density and biomass under each switchgrass cultivar from this program was Nebraska 28 cultivar of switchgrass is. Most commonly found in prairie lowlands, but the short rhizomes can form sod! At Michigan State University the United States maturing strain of switchgrass harvested in fall or spring grown!, adequate levels of phosphorus ( P ) and potassium ( K ) will be in the spring of.... Is being evaluated as a potential bioenergy crop for conversion nebraska 28 switchgrass ethanol 300 )... Bioenergy crop the shorter photoperiod causes plants to flower too early, ” Mitchell! Maintained nearly complete stands in 1996 and soil carbon sequestration response to ammonium nitrate, manure, one... ( NE 28 ) was adapted in Nebraska, South Dakota generally, lowland plants have a later date. On biomass yields up to 5 feet tall switch grass growth application on eastern Nebraska tallgrass prairies important. 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Habitats and climates and has few major insect or disease pests these hybrids are promising sources for bioenergy.

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